Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

Ega Purnamasari, Eti Yerizel, Efrida Efrida

Abstract

Abstrak
Aspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 20 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol negatif (KN), kontrol positif (KP), perlakuan 1 (P1), perlakuan 2 (P2). Aloksan 150 mg/kgBB diinduksikan pada kelompok KP dan P2, aspartam 315 mg/kgBB diberikan pada kelompok P1 dan P2 selama 4 minggu. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur setelah 4 minggu menggunakan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata kadar glukosa darah puasa kelompok KN (88,39 mg/dL), KP (134,11 mg/dL), P1 (93,95 mg/dL), dan P2 (66,66 mg/dL). Analisis data dengan Uji ANOVA nilai p= 0,000 (p<0,05), terdapat perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Keimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah puasa tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan.
Kata kunci: aspartam, kadar glukosa darah, diabetes melitus, aloksan

Abstract

Aspartame is a low-calorie sugar substitute that is often consumed by people with diabetes, but the safety of aspartame is still controversial. The high intensity of aspartame sweetness could be expected to lower blood glucose levels. Other study said the results of the metabolism of aspartame such aspartic acids and phenylalanine which can be a precursor of glucose through gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. This study is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: negative control (KN), positive control (KP), treatment 1 (P1), treatment 2 (P2). Alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight induced in KP and P2 groups, aspartame 315 mg/kg body weight administered on P1 and P2 groups for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. The results of this study, the mean fasting blood glucose levels KN group (88.39 mg/dL), KP (134.11 mg/dL), P1 (93.95 mg/dL), and P2 (66.66 mg/dL). Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p-value=0.000 ( p<0.05 ), there are differences in fasting blood glucose levels were significant in all groups. The conclusions of this study is the provision of aspartame in alloxan induced diabetic rats can cause a decrease in blood glucose levels significantly.
Keywords: aspartame, blood glucose levels, diabetes mellitus, alloxan

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