Hubungan Status Gizi dengan Derajat Pneumonia pada Balita di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang

Mia Nurnajiah, Rusdi Rusdi, Desmawati Desmawati

Abstract

Abstrak               

Pneumonia merupakan infeksi saluran pernapasan akut yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama pada balita di dunia, terutama di negara berkembang. Salah satu faktor risiko dari pneumonia adalah status gizi yang kurang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan status gizi dan derajat pneumonia pada balita di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Desain penelitian adalah retrospektif analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional dan menggunakan uji statistik Chi-square.  Pengambilan data dilakukan dari Agustus hingga September 2014 di pusat rekam medis RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang.  Subjek penelitian adalah 105 balita yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Indikator status gizi yang digunakan adalah indkator BB/U kurva CDC rujukan WHO-NCHS. Subjek penelitian diklasifikasikan menurut derajat ringan-berat pneumonia. Sebanyak 51 balita (91,1%) dengan status gizi baik menderita pneumonia (ringan-sedang) dan 18 balita (8,9%) status gizi kurang-buruk menderita pneumonia berat. Hasil penelitian p < 0,05 menunjukkan adanya hubungan bermakna antara status gizi dengan balita penderita pneumonia. Kesimpulan  penelitian ini ialah terdapat hubungan bermakna antara status gizi dan derajat pneumonia pada balita di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Sebagian besar balita dengan pneumonia derajat berat memiliki status gizi kurang dan buruk.

Kata kunci: status gizi, derajat pneumonia, balita

 

Abstract

Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection which is the leading cause of children mortality in aged less than 5 years in the world, especially in developing countries.  One of pneumonia risk factors is undernutrition. The objective of this study  was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and pneumonia severity of children aged less than 5 years in RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Type of this research is analytics retrospective with cross-sectional design and chi-square statistic test. The research was held from Agustus until September 2014 in medical record centre of. Dr.  M. Djamil Padang Hospital. Subjects of this research were 105 children aged less than 5 years which are selected by inclusion and exclusion criterias. The indicator used for nutritional status was based on weight per age with CDH chart referred by WHO-NCHS. Fifty one subjects (91,1%) with pneumonia (mil to moderate) had good nutritional status and 18 subjects (8,9%) with severe pneumonia were lack in their nutritional status. The result showed a significant relationship between nutritional status and pneumonia with p < 0,05. The conclusion is that a nutritional status has significant relationship to pneumonia severity of children aged less than 5 years in Dr. M. Djamil Padang Hospital. Most of those children suffered from severe pneumonia are in undernutrition.

Key words: nutritional status, pneumonia severity, children aged less than 5 years

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