Hubungan Stresor Psikososial pada Kehamilan dengan Partus Prematurus

Yuli Nenti Herlina, Desmiwarti Desmiwarti, Edison Desmiwarti

Abstract

Abstrak


 Partus prematurus merupakan suatu keadaan patologis dengan beragam penyebab, lebih kurang 50% disebabkan prematur spontan yang merupakan akselerasi sumbu HPA ibu-janin yang disebabkan stres fisik dan psikologis dalam kehamilan. Stres psikologis dapat disebabkan peristiwa kehidupan sehari-hari (stres psikososial) yang disebabkan stresor psikososial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan  beberapa stresor psikososial dengan partus prematurus. Penelitian ini merupakan studi analitik observasional dengan rancangan case control. Kasus adalah ibu bersalin dengan usia gestasi < 37 minggu sedangkan kontrol ≥ 37 minggu  di rumah sakit, klinik bersalin dan praktik bidan di Kota Sawahlunto, Kota Payakumbuh dan Kota Pariaman pada tahun 2014. Sampel terdiri 36 kasus dan 36 kontol yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Analisis menggunakan uji chi-square dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% (α=0,05). Stresor masalah internal keluarga (p=0,009; OR=0,245; 95%CI=0,091–0,659) dan perubahan hidup lingkungan tempat tinggal (p=0,032; OR=0,253; 95%CI=0,080–0,807) ada hubungan dengan partus prematurus. Stresor kesulitan ekonomi, kehamilan sekarang serta beban pekerjaan tidak terbukti ada hubungan dengan partus prematurus. Stresor masalah internal keluarga dan perubahan hidup lingkungan tempat tinggal adalah beberapa stresor psikososial yang terbukti berhubungan dengan  partus prematurus

Kata kunci: partus prematurus, stres, stresor psikososial

 

Abstract

Preterm labor is a pathologic state with various cases, less than 50% caused by spontaneous preterm labor which is an accelaration process of fetal–maternal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis that caused by physical and psychological stress during pregnancy. Psychological stresses caused by daily events (psychosocial stress) as a result from psychological stressor. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between psychological stressor and preterm labor.This was an observational analytic study with case control design. Case group of samples were women who delivered in < 37 weeks of gestation, and control group of samples were women who delivered in > 37 weeks of gestation in hospital, maternity clinic, and private practice of midwives in Sawahlunto, Payakumbuh and Pariaman in 2014. Samples consist of 36 people for controls which met inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test with 95% confidence interval (α=0.05). Internal family problems stressor (p=0.009; OR=0.245; 95%CI=0.091–0.659), and changes in life of environment (p=0.032; OR=0.253; 95% CI=0.080–0.807), that means there is relationship with preterm labor. Difficulty economic stressor, current pregnancy problem and workload were not proven relationship with preterm labor.Internal family problem and changes in life of environment are some of psychosogical stressor that had been proven has relationship with preterm labor.

Keywords: preterm labor, stress, psychosocial stressor

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